That would be very interesting if the muscle damage model was actually true when it comes to causing muscle growth, but I stopped believing in it years ago. See, we don't yet know EXACTLY how muscle grows but recent evidence points more toward cell chemical signaling than muscle damage.
YES some small amount of muscle damage can occur from time to time when training hard, but not always and it is not the principal growth stimulus IMHO. A good example are the occlusion training studies which found that if you cut off blood (so oxygen) flow to the muscles (with something similar to a blood pressure cuff), then lifting loads as light as 20% and not even close to failure elicit the same hypertrophy response than lifting 80% weights to failure... heck, even walking on a treadmill with said cuff elicited a significant growth response.
This is obviously not due to muscle damage or even carbs depletion but rather to growth factor release (IGF-1 and MGF to name two), making a muscle more responsive to anabolic hormones (e.g. increasing sensitivity to IGF-1, insulin and testosterone) as well as cell chemical signaling.
I could also point to sprint cyclists or speed skaters who have huge legs, sometimes without even much weight lifting training, because of the nature of their sport. BUT their legs do a lot of work, but work that is devoid of eccentric actions. Most of the muscle damage occurs during the eccentric portion of the contraction, yet these guys have huge legs... without muscle damage.
If muscle damage was the stimulus for growth, hitting your legs with a baseball bat or stabbing them with a knife would make them grow...
And if carbs depletion was a growth stimulus then running a marathon or using a low carbs diet (which depletes all of your muscles of their glycogen stores) would instantly make you huge.
And as you mention real-life examples show that you can absolutely grow big muscles training them almost every day. Look at gymnast's back & arms from daily pull-ups and dips work or olympic lifter legs from daily squatting.
A theory that doesn't pan out in real life, cannot be anything more than mental masturbation.