I don't think there's a single set of exercises that does everything. I think you can find a good core set of exercises, and then adjust over time based on how things meet your goals. Your results and other lifestyle factors can adjust your goals over time, so it would make sense that your exercise selection would change too.
The Dan John (or close) version: Upper body Push, Upper body Pull, Squat, Hinge, Loaded Carry
Pavel's Power to the People: Upper body Push (vertical or horizonal, unilateral or bilateral), Hinge
Christian Thibaudeau's 20 Minute Muscle Builder: Overhead Press, Bench Press, Deadlift, Row
Wendler's 5/3/1: Bench, Press, Squat, Deadlift
Greyskull: Bench, Press, Squat, Deadlift
Generic Military PT: Pushups, Situps, Pullups, Runs, Loaded Marches
Generic Olympic Lifting programs: Snatch, Clean, Jerk, Front Squat, Back Squat
There's really a lot of overlap between those, even though the goal of each program is different. Dan John's list basically captures the essence of all of those.
Where they differ most is in how the frequency, intensity and volume are manipulated. This is probably more important in terms of reaching your goals (whatever they are), than the actual exercise selection itself... as long as the base of your exercise selection is along the same patterns as above.
If you're tight on time, I think it makes sense to have a core set of exercises to fall back on.
Here's a silly example, but think of a tree. A tree with a really thick strong and stable trunk, but no branches, isn't a particularly nice tree to look at. A tree with lots of really nice branches, but a really thin and weak trunk, is eventually going to run into some problems. The best is the one that combines the two. You want your core exercises, but you also want the other stuff, adjusted to your goals.