Dude... have you ever seen the sandlot? You're like smalls. You think too much.
You're 17. Youre a beginner. Anything you do will give you gains. Seriously, do anything and you will EARN gains... do compound lifts, lift big, lift with perfect form, and eat a shit load (no matter what) you will gain weight. If you want to gain muscle, eat alot. Protein is definilty important: eggs, tuna, steak, chicken, turkey, as you mentioned, shakes.
Which brings me to my next point, shakes are meant to supplement. Whole food is defintly the best way to get your calories in.
Carbs, also very important: sweet potatoes, whole wheat anything, milk (which has protein, and fat depending on what kind). Fats, you're probably thinking fats are bad. wrong.
Fats keep your T levels high enough (which you shouldnt have a problem with, since you're 17, but still.) Whole milk, eggs (again), cheese, olive oil, canola oil, fish oil...
In other words, eat anything except fast food, soda, candy, and anything blatantly high in sugar. Bulk up for the remainder of the winter (at least) then you'll realize how much easier it is to cut down only to reveal the hard earned muscle.
Dont get in a hurry, either. Grab a program from here (any one will do), follow it to a T (they all work, extremely well) and eat like a motherfucker.
Read up on massive eating by John Berardi, and the "bulking tips for newbies" thread.
P.S. Sorry for the rambling, repetition, and lack of grammar, its been a long day and I'm tired.