A couple things here:
You say you don't have protein until well into your next day? What is well into your next day?
Assuming well into your next day means later than morning at least, what is your reason for skipping protein in the morning? A whey/casein blend with some type of whole foods that contain fiber and fat would likely keep your blood glucose levels in check if that is your goal.
Have you tried using a protein like micellar casein? Biotest sells a type of that, even. It is a very slow digesting protein and would likely have negligible effects on your blood glucose levels throughout night which should allow you to awake to morning blood glucose levels that are under control.
Lastly, as a type II diabetic I would use your work out as an opportunity to really take advantage of the non-insulin mediated glucose uptake mechanism and throw in some carbs peri-workout. Have you tried that? What was the result of your blood sugar levels in the morning? What types of carbohydrates did you ingest?
Lastly lastly, I am not so sure that your gap of protein fasting is going to undermine your muscle gaining goals. Plenty of people have success gaining muscle using an intermittent fasting approach. I think nailing down your peri-workout nutrition so it best serves your goal of protein synthesis and controllable morning blood glucose levels is probably the most important. Having said that, the rules don't often apply to type II diabetics who have all sorts of metabolic dysfunctions. More information is likely needed.