1) Usually doctors start out with a measly 25 mg of clomid (half a tab) and take it from there. If that doesn't work, they go up to 50 or 25 one day, 50 the next, and might increase it until they see changes in LH, FSH, and T. At least that's what my doc does. Unless you get regular lab values, you won't have the slightest clue of what's going on.
2.a) Atrophy is common amongst nearly EVERYONE who uses heavy test doses and TRT. Actually, I don't know a single person on TRT without HCG who hasn't experienced atrophy. I have been on high or moderate dose HCG for the past six months and I have not gained all testicular size back. When I only used T, mine were half the size of normal when my doctor once checked. I'd say they are approximately 75% normal size now, even with now using 1000 IU HCG three times per week with 100 mg of testosterone per week.
2.b) Recovery with clomid is not a guarantee for all. AGAIN, no one knows what the hell is going on without lab values, especially when they are not in the care of a qualified doctor.
2.c) AI's are not necessary for all people.
Take home: most people shouldn't screw around with roids in the first place.