Sprinting will increase your VO2 max to some extent if the rest periods are short enough between sprints, but so will several other forms of physical training.
Speaking as a former decent distance runner, (32:08 10k cross country PR) the best way to develop a higher VO2 max from running is to run fast but under control for 2-3 minutes, then run easy for 60-100% of the time you ran fast for. Go back to running fast but under control for 2-3 minutes... and you get the point. Repeat the process 6-10 times. Obviously, this isn't something for beginners; it's not even something for most of the people who visit this site because most here either want to look strong or be strong. Having a VO2 max in the 80's is much more of an endurance thing.
As someone mentioned, world-class cross country skiers typically have extremely high VO2 maxes. I doubt they built that high VO2 max from only steady state skiing, though. They probably do a fair amount of interval training, similar to what distance runners do. Of course, I could be wrong. I have never cross-country skied, swam, or cycled competitively, so I can't be sure.
For those of you who are unfamiliar, a high VO2 max isn't the be all and end all of endurance sports, but it certainly doesn't hurt to have one.