Is the substance Galanin?
Galanin also reduces insulin release.
P Miralles, E Peiró, P Dégano, RA Silvestre and J Marco,
Diabetes, Aug 1990
Results of studies on the effects of exogenous galanin on islet cell secretion are controversial. Until recently, only pig galanin has been available, and structural dissimilarities among the galanin molecules of different species might have contributed to discrepancies among the study results. Thus, we investigated the influence of synthetic rat galanin (50 nM) on unstimulated insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin release and on the responses of these hormones to arginine (10 mM), glucose (16.6 mM), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; 1 nM) in a homologous animal model, the perfused rat pancreas. In addition, the effect of an equimolar concentration of pig galanin on arginine-induced islet cell secretion was examined. Infusion of rat galanin reduced unstimulated insulin release (approximately 60%, P less than 0.01) and the insulin responses to arginine (approximately 30%, P less than 0.025), glucose (100%, P less than 0.01), and VIP (approximately 80%, P less than 0.025). Galanin also inhibited unstimulated somatostatin secretion (approximately 15%, P less than 0.05) and virtually abolished the somatostatin output evoked by arginine, glucose, and VIP. Conversely, rat galanin increased unstimulated glucagon output (approximately 20%, P less than 0.05), potentiated the glucagon response to arginine (approximately 50%, P less than 0.05) and VIP (approximately 90%, P less than 0.05), and counteracted the suppressor effect of glucose on alpha-cell secretion. Pig galanin inhibited the insulin output elicited by arginine (approximately 45%, P less than 0.05) but did not affect the somatostatin and glucagon responses to the aminogenic stimulus. In conclusion, the opposite effects of galanin on insulin and glucagon secretion favor the concept of galanin as a diabetogenic agent. Galanin also behaves as a potent inhibitor of somatostatin release. Finally, the importance of using homologous galanin to study the biological activity of this peptide must be emphasized.
Acta endocrinologica, Sep 1988
Galanin is a 29 amino acid peptide which has been found in intrapancreatic nerves. The effects of galanin, adrenergic and cholinergic blockade as well as somatostatin on the hormone release from the isolated perfused dog pancreas were studied. It was found that galanin dose-dependently inhibited insulin (P less than 0.001) and somatostatin (P less than 0.001) but not glucagon secretion at normal glucose levels. The lowest galanin concentration that caused a significant suppression of insulin and somatostatin secretion was 10(-11) and 10(-10) mol/l, respectively. Similar effects were evident during stimulation with 2.5 mmol/l arginine. Galanin (10(-9) mol/l) caused a more pronounced inhibition of insulin and somatostatin secretion at high (10 mmol/l) and normal (5 mmol/l) than at low glucose (1.3 mmol/l). In contrast, suppression of the glucagon secretion was only seen at low glucose (1.3 mmol/l). Perfusion of 10(-6) mol/l of atropine, phentolamine and propranolol had no effect on the galanin-mediated (10(-10) mol/l) inhibition of insulin and somatostatin secretion. Galanin (10(-12)-10(-10) mol/l) and somatostatin (10(-12)-10(-10) mol/l) were equipotent in inhibiting insulin secretion whereas only somatostatin exerted a suppression of the glucagon secretion at normal glucose. Thus, galanin exerts a differential effect on islet hormone secretion and may participate in the hormonal control of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion.