My doctor, before the surgery, made me optimistic I would be squatting, deadlifting, and power cleaning like normal about a year after the surgery. He also figured (and logically I did too) that I would gain SOME internal rotation since my IR was about 0 prior to the surgery. I gained none of it back. I don't expect to squat or deadlift ever, though maybe trap bar deadlift. I've found whether a exercise is "good" or not for my hip almost always boils down to hip hinge angle, meaning squats and deadlifts where your back is flat/arched and hips hinge always cause pain. I can do leg presses on certain leg press machines but not others, so most of my work is 1 leg because it seems like less stress is placed on my hip. Not 100% sure why, maybe just lighter weights?
I've met another person that was post-op and similar results as mine. Hip hurts randomly some days for the first 1-1.5 years, can't do full range of motion exercises like squats without pain. My theory is either scar tissue or more likely missing cartilage, since some cartilage was removed in my case. My physical therapist mentioned the recovery for the surgery is easily over a year, not the 6 months a doctor says. He had a classmate with the surgery done and said it took almost 2 years to be normal. I'm still occasionally trying to figure out how to "loosen" up my hip and get back some internal rotation, but I'm fairly sure it's a capsule issue and I haven't had much luck there.
I too thought I re-injured my labrum, I had a scary lifting accident about 4-6 weeks post-op (tried benching, got stuck, stood up with the weight from a full squat) that caused some discomfort in my hip for a week. And maybe I did re-injure it, I have no idea and there's not a great way to tell since they removed some cartilage during the surgery. But from reading online, there is a signficant number of people who have the same issue for many years after the surgery. There is also some that report great results, but I don't know which is the majority to be honest.
If you're like me, you'll have some days your hip is sore from working out. Or maybe it just hurts some when you go to lift. Either case, be smart about it. Taking a day off from what you planned to do and doing something else won't ruin your progress and it'll make your hip much happier.