Here is some extra info on ghrp6 i found on the net i find them to be very informative!
Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
Chronic systemic administration of growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), an agonist for the ghrelin receptor, to normal adult rats increases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I mRNA and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) levels in various brain regions, including the hypothalamus. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones of the arcuate nucleus express receptors for ghrelin, we investigated whether these neurones increase their IGF-I and p-Akt levels in response to this agonist. In control rats, immunoreactive pAkt was practically undetectable; however, GHRP-6 increased p-Akt immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus, with a subset of neurones also being immunoreactive for NPY. Immunoreactivity for IGF-I was detected in NPY neurones in both experimental groups. To determine if activation of this intracellular pathway is involved in modulation of NPY synthesis RCA-6 cells, an embryonic rat hypothalamic neuronal cell line that expresses NPY was used. We found that GHRP-6 stimulates NPY and IGF-I mRNA synthesis and activates Akt in this cell line. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt activation by LY294002 treatment did not inhibit GHRP-6 induction of NPY or IGF-I synthesis. These results suggest that some of the effects of GHRP-6 may involve stimulation of local IGF-I production and Akt activation in NPY neurones in the arcuate nucleus. However, GHRP-6 stimulation of NPY production does not involve this second messenger pathway.
PMID: 16218998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Immune enhancing effect of a growth hormone secretagogue.
Koo GC, Huang C, Camacho R, Trainor C, Blake JT, Sirotina-Meisher A, Schleim KD, Wu TJ, Cheng K, Nargund R, McKissick G.
Department of Immunology Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA. email@example.com
Growth hormone (GH) has been known to enhance immune responses, whether directly or through the insulin like growth factor-1, induced by GH. Recently a nonpeptidyl small m.w. compound, a GH secretagogue (GHS), was found to induce the production of GH by the pituitary gland. In this study, we examined the effect of GHS in immunological functions of 5- to 6-wk-old and 16- to 24-month-old mice. In young mice, we observed a significant increase in PBLs, but T and B cell-proliferative responses were not consistently enhanced. The old mice, treated with GHS for 3 wk, did not show increases in peripheral lymphocytes, but they exhibited a statistically significant increase in thymic cellularity and differentiation. When inoculated with a transplantable lymphoma cell line, EL4, the treated old mice showed statistically significant resistance to the initiation of tumors and the subsequent metastases. Generation of CTL to EL4 cells was also enhanced in the treated mice, suggesting that GHS has a considerable immune enhancing effect, particularly in the old mice. We have also found that GHS promoted better thymic engraftment in bone marrow transplant of SCID mice. We found more cycling cells in the spleens of treated mice, suggesting that GHS may exert its immune enhancing effect by promoting cell division in lymphoid cells. These observations ascribe to GHS a novel therapy possible for aging, AIDS, and transplant individuals, whose immune functions are compromised.
PMID: 11238671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Clinical and experimental effects of growth hormone secretagogues on various organ systems.
Svensson JA, Bengtsson B.
Research Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden.
A new class of growth hormone (GH) secretagogues (GHS) has been developed. In rats, the GHS hexarelin exerts cardioprotective effects. In humans, GHS increase growth velocity in children with short stature/GH deficiency. In adults, a combined infusion of GH releasing peptide-2 and thyrotropin releasing hormone increases circulating concentrations of GH as well as that of insulin-like growth factor-I. In healthy volunteers, oral GHS administration reverses diet-induced catabolism, and in healthy obese men, oral GHS treatment increases fat-free mass. However, little is known about the possible direct effects of GHS and there are few long-term studies. Therefore, it is not yet possible to fully evaluate the use of GHS. Copyright Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel
PMID: 10592439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 on the nocturnal secretion of GH, ACTH and cortisol and on the sleep EEG in man: role of routes of administration.
Frieboes RM, Murck H, Antonijevic IA, Steiger A.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
After repeated intravenous (i.v.) boluses of growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) we found recently increases of growth hormone (GH), corticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels and of the amount of stage 2 sleep. In clinical use, oral (p.o.), intranasal (i.n.) and sublingual (s.l.) routes of administration have advantages over i.v. administration. We compared the sleep-endocrine effects of 300 microg/kg of body weight (b.w.) GHRP-6 in enteric-coated capsules given p.o. at 21.00 h and of 30 microg/kg GHRP-6 i.n. or 30 microg/kg GHRP-6 sl. given at 22.45 h in normal young male controls with placebo conditions. After GHRP-6 p.o. secretion of GH, ACTH and cortisol remained unchanged. The only effect of GHRP-6 s.l. was a trend toward an increase in GH in the first half of the night. GHRP-6 i.n. prompted a significant increase in GH concentration during the total night and a trend toward an increase in ACTH secretion during the first half of the night, whereas cortisol secretion remained unchanged. Furthermore, after GHRP-6 i.n., sleep stage 2 increased in the second half of the night by trend, and spectral analysis of total night non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep revealed a decrease of delta power by trend. In contrast sleep stage 2 decreased during the second half of the night after GHRP-6 p.o. Our data demonstrate that GHRP-6 is capable of modulating GH and ACTH secretion as well as sleep. However, the effects depend upon dosage, duration and route of administration.
PMID: 10336729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Growth hormone-releasing peptides.
Ghigo E, Arvat E, Muccioli G, Camanni F.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Italy.
Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and decreases thereafter. By the sixth decade of life, the activity of GHRPs is reduced but it is still marked and higher than that of GHRH. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is synergistic with that of GHRH, is not affected by opioid receptor antagonists, such as naloxone, and is only blunted by inhibitory influences, including neurotransmitters, glucose, free fatty acids, gluco corticoids, recombinant human GH and even exogenous somatostatin, which are known to almost abolish the effect of GHRH. GHRPs maintain their GH-releasing effect in somatotrope hypersecretory states such as in acr*****ly, anorexia nervosa and hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, their good GH-releasing activity has been shown in some but not in other somatotrope hyposecretory states. In fact, reduced GH responses after GHRP administration have been reported in idiopathic GH deficiency as well as in idiopathic short stature, in obesity and in hypothyroidism, while in patients with pituitary stalk disconnection or Cushing's syndrome the somatotrope responsiveness to GHRPs is almost absent. In short children an increase in height velocity has also been reported during chronic GHRP treatment. Thus, based on their marked GH-releasing effect even after oral administration, GHRPs offer their own clinical usefulness for treatment of some GH hyposecretory states.
PMID: 9186261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP-6) stimulates phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover in human pituitary somatotroph cells.
Lei T, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R, Adams EF.
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany.
Growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP-6) is a synthetic hexapeptide which specifically stimulates secretion of growth hormone (GH) by pituitary somatotrophs. The precise intracellular mechanism by which this is achieved has not been deciphered although it is known to involve protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca2+ but to be cAMP-independent. We have used cell cultures of human pituitary somatotrophinomas to demonstrate powerful effects of GHRP-6 on membrane phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, a second messenger system which leads to activation of PKC and mobilisation of intracellular Ca2+ reserves. Incubation of somatotrophinoma cells with GHRP-6 led to a dose-dependent stimulation of rate of PI turnover. GH secretion was increased in parallel. Effects were discernable after only 15 minutes incubation and rose to a maximum at 2 hours. PI turnover was stimulated by GHRP-6 in 8 of 8 tumours examined, effects ranging from 2.1 - 7.9 fold increases. Stimulation of GH secretion by GHRP-6 was independent of presence of gsp oncogenes, emphasising the cAMP-independent nature of its effects. These results provide evidence that the GH-stimulatory effects of GHRP-6 are achieved through activation of the PI second messenger system and thus support earlier findings that PKC and Ca2+ play central roles in mediating the effects of GHRP-6.
(it is a start on my ghrp6 research although this is not the apropriate thread)