I’m surprised that you haven’t found the answers to your questions after a quick Ask Jeeves, or Google search.
You’re right though. Lots of people will give you different answers on how much protein to consume throughout the day.
My opinion is at LEAST a gram per lb of body weight. You’re looking for a positive nitrogen balance to build muscle and you’ll want to keep your protein up while losing body fat.
Whey is great anytime of the day because it acts fast, but don’t disregard the others. Albumin (egg) is great too, Casein is great before bed and Surge is terrific after a workout.
Don’t be afraid of those carbs. You need them to replenish your glycogen stores.
Actually–because whey does ‘act’ so fast I would limit it to right away in the am or PWO.
.8-1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight is plenty for muscle synthesis for the VAST majority of people. Very few would need any more than that to promote muscle growth. If you choose to eat more because of a specific diet, that’s fine. For body/muscle/structural needs, there is little evidence that supports any more protein intake.
The most important thing to remember is to include some type of protein source any time you eat.