Welcome to having a new hobby that may be more expensive an addictive than gun ownership. Say this to your wife when she starts asking questions But honey, you can't even buy this at fresh market or whole foods.
Spinner baits are good for trout. I like smaller spinner baits on a ultralight rod spinning rod with 4lb fluorocarbon coated line. Good colors are white with silver blades and black with gold blades. For faster water and larger fish go with jerk baits and spoons.
Live bait for trout. worms work great in slack water. Use a small baitholder hook #6 eagle claw and put some split shot about a foot up from your terminal tackle(hook) Bounce this off the bottom in pools below rapids. Check your local regulations to check on what type of tackle is legal and what licenses are needed. Minnows work well fished under a bobber. Regulations differ drastically from state to state.
Saltwater in NC.
You mentioned a huge variety of species many of which are pelagic and some are you will catch along the coast.
Bluefish, flounder, some Spanish mac's, and croaker can be caught near the inter tidal zone or from a pier frequently. The other fish it really helps to have a boat. So hiring a reputable guide would worthwhile IMO. This will be expensive, but fun.
I would start from the beach or from a pier with a saltwater spinning reel and surf road with a fish finder rig. Why do you need a saltwater reel. The bearings are sealed, and this prevents saltwater from eating them. Most freshwater reels are not sealed and will die quickly. Even with good tackle, you should wash your rod and reel daily in fresh water. Bait, cut squid, dead or live shrimp. Local advice trumps mine any day. Catching fish takes work. Finding a knowledgeable local shop is a good thing when learning to fish.
Google this rod and reel combo for surf fishing. This is a good starter setup.
Shakespeare Ugly Stik 10' Bigwater Spinning Combo