Well yes and no (get used to hearing that answer a lot btw). Yes, this is a case of you having a large large history and base in endurance oriented training from all your sports so the short answer is: Lift heavy and often (with crisp form obviously, you can't pack on muscle if you're injured).
Long answer is there's a system, just like for your sports. Just like for eveyrthing in fact. Many ways to do things, but they all land on the same principles.
Your situation is actually very very good--you have a monstrous work capacity due to your endurance background, so you don't need to worry about overtraining. You are in good shape. You just need to work hard. I would maintain a minimum in your cardio, to keep a semblance of your endurance but honestly you're in about a perfect position to pack on muscle--if you eat and train for it.
My short answer is this--to pack on muscle, and since you are a competitive sports guy you will understand this--you should look at the biggest, baddest athletes out there and train like they do. Maybe not exactly, because you have to get used to things and not everything an elite NFL linebacker is doing will matter. But in general. Who's big strong and jacked? NFL players, college football athletes. What do they train like? Go for that.
With your sports background and work capacity I would NOT suggest a body part split. Train like a big football player, with some more reps. HOWEVER, if you have tired or gotten bored of training like an athlete for so long you can try the following: I would suggest an upper/lower split, or Whole body/emphasis split. The more muscles you involve in every workout, the better the growth stimulus.
Upper/lower is self-explanatory, but the Whole body/emphasis split is something else. Basically you take the the 1st 2 exercises after the warm-up is done and they have to combine to cover the whole body (example--squats, push press. Or deadlift, bench press. Or power clean from floor and push press. You get the idea). Then the rest of the workout is spent on working a movement pattern or group of muscles. Example below.
Mon---squat/push press. Then upper body pushing
Tues---deadlift/bench. Then legs.
Wed---squat/push press. Then back.
Thurs--OFF or cardio to recover.
Friday--Squat/push press. Then both chest and back.
Satur---Legs--or, cardio or conditioning
Sun----cardio or off.
This isn't perfect obviously, I just whipped it up in about 15 seconds, but it gives you an idea. Your "priority #1" emphasis group goes on Mondays and Fridays--I am assuming that is going to be chest lol. The "whole body lifts" at the beginning should never be done to failure, and should be done in such a manner that you are still snappy and crisp on the last set (in other words, don't get so tired you're sloppy. You should always be 100% sure you can complete the set without danger). They're for strength and speed, lower reps most of the time, something like 3 sets of 5 or 5 sets of 3.
If anybody else has questions/criticisms about this split, I can easily defend it