Let's see if we can make this simpler.
So I sit on my ass all day and eat above maintenance. My excess nutrients, depending on the composition and my level of genetic giftedness will be deposited as glycogen first then fat and muscle (muscle to a lesser degree).
If I'm not working out I'm not really affecting my muscle glycogen and my liver glycogen will probably be in the normal range if I consume adequate carbs. So this means I'll mostly be replenishing and slowly increasing my fat stores. Keep in mind, what little energy I am consuming is coming from the carbs, then liver glycogen and fat stores which is why they must be replenished, and as I gain weight I will gain a small quantity of muscle even with little exercise (according to that overfeeding twin study I read about long time ago).
Case 2. I eat in surplus throughout the day. I workout once and I consume most of my carbs in the post workout window. I will deplete glycogen with my workout, so that will be refilled first, I'll also increase my body's rate of protein synthesis and insulin will help the carbs and protein I have consumed be used for that purpose, creating a bias toward building muscle for a duration. Keep in mind that earlier in the day, if consuming carbs and relatively innactive that is where I will derive most of my energy.
Case 3. I eat in a deficit when considering the day as a whole. If underconsuming carbs earlier in the day I will derive my energy from what carbs I get, liver glycogen, then probably fat (if everything else is normal) and also a little bit from protein. I workout and employ common peri-workout nutrition putting most of my carbs around that time. At this point I rebuild my muscle to a degree (what level will be determined by the nature of my workout and the quality of my peri-workout nutrition).
In that case it may be possible to maintain or slightly increase muscle mass (wouldn't be very dramatic) while preferentially losing fat throughout the day.
Case 4. I'm at maintenance but again I watch my peri-workout window. I can gain muscle and lose fat (not as dramatically as cutting and bulking) and there will be a limit to how much muscle you can gain from doing recomposition because your metabolic rate will slowly increase if your recomposition is successfull. So you're essentially shuffling things around. No breaking the laws of thermodynamics here.
Intermittent fasting proposes to create a 16 hour defecit for fat loss through the day. And a surplus around the time of your workout to make this effect more dramatic.
Carb cycling proposes to create deficits on rest days where the carbs and accompanying insulin would not especially favor muscle.
Nobody as far as I'm aware recommends momentary underfeeding after a workout. So I won't even describe that scenario, cause you can see how it's bad.
I may be incorrect on some of the details here but the general idea is consistent with findings.