in the body, an enzyme catalyzes the nucleophilic attack of the amino end of glycine to the gaudinium center in arginine, then in the tetrahedral transition state, the arginine leaves minus the gaundinium. This creates ornithine and gaundinioacetate.
gaundinioacetate is then methylated by a methionine and adenosine complex(also in the liver) and bam,
Whether or not that’s how they synthesize carnitine on a large scale is questionable, but i believe getting large amounts of arginine, glycine and even methionine is pretty easy.
However, the last methylation step could probably be done with things other than that adenosine/methionine complex, but may require protection should you use some reactive methylating agent.[/quote]
Some Synthetic Creatine is made from Sarcosine (Sarcosine salts) and Cyanamide.
Sarcosine is naturally occuring like Creatine but they use a synthetic version. Its usually made from chloroacetic acid.
Sarcosine is N-methylglycine (H3C-NH-CH2-COOH) which is also an endogenous antagonist of glycine transporter-1.
Cyanamide is an amide of cyanogen, and is white crystalline.
The creatine made from sarcosine and cyanamise is made in this huge glass lined vat called a reactor. These reactors cost up to a million dollars US and require specialist technicians hence most Creatine is made by a few firms and bought by everyone else.
The reactor has a big rod like a whisk that shoots into the mix to work it. The reactor is filled with water then the sarcosine and cyanamide are put in with catalyst compounds. The reactor is heated and pressurised a bit like a canning machine. The reaction inside causes creatine crystals to form.
Now the cystalline creatine is put in a large centrifuge. How much processing it gets after the time in the reactor is what can make it good or not so good.
The centrifuge spins and undesirable bi-products like creatinine and di-cyandiamide are slung into the bunker reservoir on the machine.
The mix left over is then dried in a vacuum drier which separates the creatine from moisture.
The last bit is milling because the powder is usually too coarse. IF its milled to 200 mesh its known as micronized and has small particles.
I theorise that some creatine gives undesirable water retention in use because its not sufficiently centrifuged to save process costs. I mentioned this in previous posts and got scoffed at but it makes sense.
Very pure creatine has more time in the centrifuge, no doubt.
The reason lots of Creatine is made in Germany and Austria is because they have lots of reactors for making it.
These are smaller glass lined reactors…
Probably not much use for making creatine but you get the idea.
Hope this helps.