Do you, ummm, read the forums here ever?
I ask because this topic has to be discussed almost as often as the "TBT vs. Split", and "compound exercises vs. isolation exercises" topics.
The magnitude of muscle damage does not directly coorelate to the degree of growth/improvement.
You have to take into account rate of recovery, rate of progression, and yes nutrition.
There is a point of diminishing returns beyond which you are actually hurting your progress.
Think about it this way:
If you go out and split some firewood for a little while each day, you will develop calluses on your hands and will eventually be able to go for longer and longer periods without overdoing it.
But, if you go out and split firewood until your hands bleed, then you aren't going to be splitting wood for quite a long time, and likely when you do finally come back to it, your hands won't be noticeably tougher than they were to begin with.
In the first example you are giving your body something that it's not used to, but not so beyond what your body is used to that your body can't adapt fast enough to benefit you.
In the second example you're going so beyond what your body is capable of adapting to that you wind up hurting yourself and possibly setting yourself back a few notches.