Personally, I have tried to set goals for the entire year. So think realistically about where you want to be a year from now, what you think is achievable (given the ups and downs of training), etc. It's an exercise in compromise - take your ideal, and then find a common ground between that and your realistic expectations.
So I'll give you an example: a year ago, in february, my squat was 275, bench 205, deadlift 335, strict press 150.
I set goals for a little over a year (may of 2013) of a 405 squat, 255 bench, 455 deadlift, and 195 strict press.
So those were my OVERALL goals. Then, I set little goals along the way. So for example, in May 2012 I Maxed, hit 315, 210, 355. Then, at the end of the summer (august) I hit 335, 210, 405. Finally, december of 2012 I maxed on all my lifts and hit 365, 235, and 435. Then, Finally I reached may and hit 390, 235, 455, and 195. SO, reached 2 of my goals, missed 2, but made progress on every lift.
I personally love setting goals this way. Setting them a year out gives you context for all the little goals you set. Every time I maxed, even if I didn't get what I wanted, I could look at the numbers in the context of my overall goals, and assess how I was progressing towards them. One thing I would definitely change, is I would test more. This past cycle, I only tested my maxes 3 times over a period of like 14 months. I put TOO much stock in the "end goals" This year, I am going to try and do a mock meet more like once every 12 weeks.But anyways, that is how I set my goals.