Ok, I don’t want to take over thalove4u’s thread, and some people asked about genomics. Here’s some stuff. This isn’t nearly everything there is on genomics and the differences between anyone and everyone. Feel free to ask questions, and I’ll answer them as best as I can, and hopefully some others will too.
Here’s a link to just one article. I don’t want to link tons of things.
Ferrell et. al., Frequent Sequence Variation in the Human Myostatin (GDF8) Gene as a Marker for Analysis of Muscle-Related Phenotypes. Genomics, Vol 62, Issue 2, Dec. 99, p 203-7.
You can look it up on Pubmed and search for “Myostatin and race”. It was the 3rd article to come up for me. You may only get the abstract, but that should be enough to understand and extrapolate what I said in his thread.
So basically, in terms of the human genome, it has yet to be MAPPED. It has been SEQUENCED. There is a hyoooooge difference, like natural competing vs a 'roid freak. Sequenced is just getting all the ATCG’s in their respective orders. After doing this for the # of base pairs that humans have (I can’t remember off the top of my head), you have to look for Open Reading Frames, or ORFs. ORFS may encode for a specific protein or numerous proteins via different post-translational (post-protein making) methods. If we weren’t all genetically different, we’d all look alike and have the same underlying traits, seriously. It would be like a world of incest. Mix-breeding between non-related people is a good thing due to everyone having different genetics (same reason why buying a mix-breed dog is good). Having different alleles (different genes encoding for the same type of thing, such as eye color, skin color, etc.) and having different non-specific mutations is what makes us different and unique. Of course there are only so many alleles for a specific parental phenotype, and cross-breeding increases the chance of survival of that specific phenotype, granted that is advantageous to the individual and their offspring.
Here’s an evolutionary explanation:
Europeans (caucasians) have historically been docile and settled. They have traditionally have had no need to be nomadic, due to the crop-loving land they live on. Caucasians have also historically lived in colder climates, which is why they are shorter and in most cases fatter. This is to keep heat in their bodies better. This is also beneficial in crop gathering, due to the fact of constantly bending over and picking things up. Think about when you are trying to sleep and you are cold. You tend to curl up in a fetal position to increase overall body warmth due to the nature of heat + heat = more heat. Trying to stay tall and straight while cold will only allow more latent transfer of heat to the surrounding air, and if you know about air and thermodynamics, it takes a lot of energy to heat it up, hence the use of double pane glass windows which keep housing units more energy efficient.
Africans (people of “black” descent) are historically taller, leaner and more muscular. They are taller for all the reasons caucasians aren’t - Africa is naturally hotter than Europe. In order to cool off more, they are taller, which means more surface area, which means cooling off faster, just like the cold while sleeping analogy, except it’s the hot while sleeping analogy. Africans are more muscular for exactly the opposite reasons caucasians aren’t. The area they are descended from has been hot, decrepit, and dry, which means horrendous farming practices. For this reason, they had to hunt more for food sources, hence the nomadic nature. In doing so, they required more muscle and less fat (leanness) to move swiftly and silently as they approach their prey. Of course, there were always nuts and berries to eat during certain times of the year, but those aren’t nearly as filling as a nice lion or gazelle.
So there’s the nutshell of genomics.