picture running in an aerobic pace/aerobic zone. Rather then an all out sprint. Inter spaced with lower intensity running. even walking.
Anaerobic is fast enough that your body goes into oxygen debt. This debt needs to be recovered later, whilst aerobic can have its oxygen needs met immediately.
So, you can measure this with pace, heart rate, etc. A light jog rather then all out.
I think you’re confusing oxygen debt with oxygen deficit.
Oxygen deficit is the ‘lag’ in oxygen consumption where anaerobic energy systems have to supply ATP because your body doesn’t have the oxygen to rely on the oxidative phosphorylation energy system. Oxygen debt occurs at the beginning of exercise.
Oxygen debt occurs after exercise when you are consuming more oxygen than the activity you are participating in requires, but this increased oxygen consumption has other functions (providing oxygen to replenish ATP stores and eliminate metabolites from muscle tissue post exercise).
This is known as EPOC (excess post exercise oxygen consumption). Generally, the greater the intensity of exercise and the lower the rest intervals between exertions, the higher the EPOC.
Let me make a few generalizations:
The greater the relative speed you run at and the greater the rest interval you utilize, the more anaerobic the interval training you are using will be.
The lesser the relative speed you run at and the lesser the rest interval you utilize, the more aerobic the interval training you are using will be.