It's a dabate I have often thought about. On a true 3 or 4 way split, I never got good results, but I also wasn't using ideal exercises, reps, sets, loads and form. When I did each muscle 1x/week, I always felt like I had passed my peak by at least 2 days. When I trained more frequenty, the heavy weights started to feel lighter. I think its because your tendons stay primed for heavy loads for 4-5 days max, however, the main thing was that with more frequency, added reps usually came as a result of more speed-I could do 5 reps in the time frame it had taken me to do 3 before-so, I think that for pure muscle, more time off is better.
Total body was just too much for me to focus on. You get your blood flowing every which way. I could not squat, bench and row heavy in the same workout.
Probably the best results came from a simple 2 way split: basically upper lower and training 6x/week but in different rep ranges: Lighter (60%), medium (70-80%), heavy (80-95%), however as I got stronger, this was too much.
Now, I would recommend a 4-5 day split of specialization, followed by 2 days of heavy work with just an upper/lower split like this:
1) Leg specialization: Quads hams and calves. I don't split quads and hams because I really only need 1 exercise for each one-1 leg squats, straight leg deads and standing or seated calves. 10, 8 and 6 reps for quads, 4 x 5 for hams, 5 x 10 for calves.
2) Chest and biceps: 1-2 chest exercises, 1-2 bicep exercises, possible forearms.
3) Shoulders and triceps-2 shoulder, 1-2 tricep
4) Back: 3-4 back exercises including at least 1 pull to the chest, and 1 pull to the waist.
5) Heavy squat-power style
6) Heavy bench-power style