Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition and plasma lipids in humans: an overview of the literature.
Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands. email@example.com
Studies in mice have indicated that feeding diets containing 0.5-1% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) considerably reduces body fat. These findings have attracted much interest because of the potential use of CLA as a tool to promote weight loss in humans. Several CLA studies in humans have now been published, and the objective of the present review was to give an overview of these experiments. Most of the studies were done in free-living subjects and were not strictly controlled for nutrient and energy intakes. None of the studies found a significant reduction in body weight, and only 2 studies showed a significant but relatively small body fat-lowering effect. Some studies suggested that CLA may have a tendency to increase lean body mass. Furthermore, there are indications from animal studies that CLA may have effects on plasma lipids. However, only one study in humans showed a significant HDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of CLA; in all the other studies, there were no significant effects on plasma total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations or on plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Thus, the results of the studies in humans indicate that the effect of CLA on body fat is considerably less than that anticipated from mice studies and that CLA has no major effect on plasma lipids.
The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on human health-related outcomes.
Tricon S, Burdge GC, Williams CM, Calder PC, Yaqoob P.
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Bioscienes, University of Reading, Whiteknights, UK. S.Tricon@reading.ac.uk
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. CLA has received considerable attention as a result of animal experiments that report anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties, and modulation of body composition and immune function. Several studies of CLA supplementation in human subjects have now been published, but in contrast to animal studies there has been marked variation between reports on the health-related outcomes. The consensus from seventeen published studies in human subjects is that CLA does not affect body weight or body composition. Some detrimental effects of the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer have also been reported in terms of altered blood lipid composition and impaired insulin sensitivity. Finally, CLA has only limited effects on immune functions in man. However, there have been reports of some interesting isomer-specific effects of CLA on the blood lipid profile, but not on immune function. These isomer-specific effects need further investigation. Until more is known, CLA supplementation in man should be considered with caution.