“Could you prove” that 1 gram of citrulline malate raises arg more than 1 gram of arg? It would interest the living hell out of me. Seriously.
I found three studies:
J Pérez-Guisado and PM Jakeman,
Journal of strength and conditioning research, May 2010
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a single dose of citrulline malate (CM) on the performance of flat barbell bench presses as an anaerobic exercise and in terms of decreasing muscle soreness after exercise. Forty-one men performed 2 consecutive pectoral training session protocols (16 sets). The study was performed as a randomized, double-blind, 2-period crossover design. Eight grams of CM was used in 1 of the 2 training sessions, and a placebo was used in the other. The subjects' resistance was tested using the repetitions to fatigue test, at 80% of their predetermined 1 repetition maximum (RM), in the 8 sets of flat barbell bench presses during the pectoral training session (S1-4 and S1'-4'). The p-value was 0.05. The number of repetitions showed a significant increase from placebo treatment to CM treatment from the third set evaluated (p <0.0001). This increase was positively correlated with the number of sets, achieving 52.92% more repetitions and the 100% of response in the last set (S4'). A significant decrease of 40% in muscle soreness at 24 hours and 48 hours after the pectoral training session and a higher percentage response than 90% was achieved with CM supplementation. The only side effect reported was a feeling of stomach discomfort in 14.63% of the subjects. We conclude that the use of CM might be useful to increase athletic performance in high-intensity anaerobic exercises with short rest times and to relieve postexercise muscle soreness. Thus, athletes undergoing intensive preparation involving a high level of training or in competitive events might profit from CM.
A Sureda, A Cordova, MD Ferrer, P Tauler, G Perez, JA Tur and A Pons,
Free radical research, Sep 2009
Seventeen volunteer male professional cyclists were randomly assigned to control or supplemented (6 g L-citrulline-malate) groups and participated in a cycling stage. Blood samples were taken in basal conditions, after the race and 3 h post-race. Citrulline supplementation significantly increased plasma concentration of both arginine and citrulline after the stage only in the supplemented group. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from controls responded to exercise with a progressive decrease in ROS production. Supplemented PMNs significantly increased ROS production after exercise compared to basal values and diminished to values lower than basal at recovery. PMN nitrite concentration was significantly higher after exercise and recovery only in the supplemented group. Markers of oxidative damage-CK, LDH, malondialdehyde-and DNA damage remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, oral L-citrulline administration previous to a cycling stage increases plasma arginine availability for NO synthesis and PMNs priming for oxidative burst without oxidative damage.
D Bendahan, JP Mattei, B Ghattas, S Confort-Gouny, ME Le Guern and PJ Cozzone,
British journal of sports medicine, Aug 2002
Previous studies have shown an antiasthenic effect of citrulline/malate (CM) but the mechanism of action at the muscular level remains unknown.To investigate the effects of CM supplementation on muscle energetics.Eighteen men complaining of fatigue but with no documented disease were included in the study. A rest-exercise (finger flexions)-recovery protocol was performed twice before (D-7 and D0), three times during (D3, D8, D15), and once after (D22) 15 days of oral supplementation with 6 g/day CM. Metabolism of the flexor digitorum superficialis was analysed by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4.7 T.Metabolic variables measured twice before CM ingestion showed no differences, indicating good reproducibility of measurements and no learning effect from repeating the exercise protocol. CM ingestion resulted in a significant reduction in the sensation of fatigue, a 34% increase in the rate of oxidative ATP production during exercise, and a 20% increase in the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise, indicating a larger contribution of oxidative ATP synthesis to energy production. Considering subjects individually and variables characterising aerobic function, extrema were measured after either eight or 15 days of treatment, indicating chronological heterogeneity of treatment induced changes. One way analysis of variance confirmed improved aerobic function, which may be the result of an enhanced malate supply activating ATP production from the tricarboxylic acid cycle through anaplerotic reactions.The changes in muscle metabolism produced by CM treatment indicate that CM may promote aerobic energy production.
So it seems to work, but could anyone tell me why? I just get really confused when I try to grasp this, since everything is connected in so many ways and the stubborn stuff just wont stop regenerating.
After reading the SWOF “article” my guess is this: Citrulline makes the urea cycle (important in amino acid breakdown) go a helluva lot faster, while malate enters the mitochondria and produces NADH, which in the end equals 2,5 ATP per molecule of malate? And you’re not after it for the NO “bullshit”? Correct?