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Chem. Class Paper: PWO Nutrition

Here is a paper I just finished for my intro to chemistry class. Any critiques or opinions would be great. Thanks…

An Athletes Post Workout Needs

The sweat dripping off your brow and stinging your eyes, your veins engulfed with blood as you complete your last rep, the burn of your muscle fibers as you push ever so close to your threshold, your workout is over. Or is it? Actually this is the time that makes of break an athlete in the quest for hypertrophy. This is one of the most crucial points in an athletes journey to excel. This is the window of opportunity. 

Now most people have the misconception muscles grow during the workout, when the truth is muscles grow after the workout. That is when one is going about their everyday life. The biggest part of that being what you put into your mouth, or I should say your nutritional habits. After you finished that last rep your body is in desperate need of macronutrients, micronutrients as well as other things. I am going to inform you of which are necessary, which arent, are and how much is actually needed.

Poor post workout nutrition can cause a wide array of negative effects on an athlete. Muscle soreness that last for days as well as fatigue. Poor performance on and off the field is also a result of poor post workout nutrition. Small gains in lean body mass even with great training programs, is also an effect.

So what exactly happens to the human body during a resistance training workout? After an intense workout the human body is in a large energy demand. The bodies first source of energy is ATP or Adenosine Tri Phosphate. As one trains the ATP stores are lowered and the body switches to glycogen and glucose as its primary source of energy. Glycogen is the main source for moderate to high intensity exercise. 

The longer duration of exercise the more glycogen that is essentially burned. In order for an athlete to be able to expand their muscular endurance one must enhance their ability to store carbohydrates in their muscles (also known as glycogen). After a workout muscle glycogen stores are depleted, and muscle proteins have began to break down. That leaves the body in a shortage for both of these vital nutrients. As the body burns glycogen and glucose for energy, the blood sugar levels start to drop.

That then causes the insulin levels to drop severely. The drop in insulin then in turn causes a rise in the catabolic hormone cortisol. Cortisol is a nasty little hormone that turns muscle proteins into glucose. That is the way your body produces energy when all other sources have been depleted. To make up for the depletion, the human body starts a process known as gluconeogenesis. This is how the body produces glucose from amino acids. This puts the body under a lot of stress and in need of many things.

For an athlete to get the most of their workout they must change the deficits in protein and glycogen to surpluses soon after a workout. This is a very time sensitive for the body. The sooner they are replenished the better.

Right after an intense workout the restorative process known as biochemical supercompensation occurs. Protein synthesis will be impeded if the supply of energy and proteins is too little or too slow. By ingesting the right amount of carbohydrates post workout the body will increase production of growth hormone as well as insulin-growth factor. That will also put a stop to gluconeogenesis, helping he body return to a positive nitrogen balance. 

What is the best way to turn the body back into an anabolic state? Suppressing cortisol as soon as possible will. For an athlete wanting to gain or maintain lean muscle mass, replenish glycogen levels, or increase anabolic hormones suppressing coritsol is a must. The fastest way to suppress cortisol is from the insulin spike cause only by a high glycemic carbohydrate. The faster the spike the faster proteins and carbohydrates help recover. The faster the absorption of these macronutrients the better. 

Carbohydrates are a source of fuel for the human body. Carbohydrates can be classified as simple sugars (monosaccharides), strands of two to ten simple sugars (oligosaccharides), and large polymers or glucose and other sugars (polysaccharides).  After a workout is important to only consume simple sugars, it is in that time that the body is in a hypoglycemic state. Insulin along with blood sugar have dropped. High glycemic carbohydrates will give the body an instantaneous  rise of blood glucose levels. 

That in turn will force an immediate increase in insulin production. The now higher concentration of glucose in the blood will push the glucose and amino acids into the muscle cell much faster. This will also cause secretion of growth hormone. An increase in insulin also causes vasodilation or opening of the vessels. Therefore, more nutrients along with blood can be carried to the cells.

It is very important to stick with high glycemic carbohydrates after a workout. They absorb faster and spike insulin very quick. The faster glucose hits the bloodstream, the less protein breakdown and more storing of glycogen. Fat is one macronutrient that is not welcomed in the post workout period. Fat slows digestion severely. This is because metabolically the human body has to go through more processes to break down fat. Fructose is also a no when it comes to post workout nutrition.

This is because it replenishes liver glycogen levels instead of muscle glycogen, as well as its usually lower glycemic index. It is also important that this high glycemic carbohydrate be consumed in liquid form. That is because liquid is more quickly digested as well as absorbed.

The macronutrient protein is very vital post workout. It is the building blocks of the human body. Protein ingestion, combined with high glycemic carbohydrates is the 

best way to reach the state of anabolism. It is also important that this high glycemic carbohydrate be consumed in liquid form. That is because liquid is more quickly digested as well as absorbed. The best form of protein post workout would have to be hydrolyzed whey. It usually will absorb within twenty minutes.

Water is very important for an athletes best performance. Being hydrated is vital for many human bodily functions.  Any imbalance will cause much unwanted side effects.

The essential amino acid l-glutamine is great following an intense workout. It enhances protein syntheses. It greatly reduces the risk of overtraining. It also enhances glycogen storage. It reduces exercise induced oxidative stress, as well as strengthens the immune system.

Creatine is a great addition to an athletes post workout nutrition. Occurring naturally creatine is the formation of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and methionine. The human bodies liver combines those three and the formation is creatine. Creatine increases the human bodies creatine phosphate system. In other words when the human body produces energy or ATP (adenosine tri phosphate) it breaks off one phosphate leaving ADP (adenosine di phosphate). 

The bodies cell breaks off a phosphate from the creatine, reattaching it with the ADP to once again have ATP. That provides an athlete 10 up to 20 seconds of energy to perform an exercise.

For an athlete with their primary goal being that of hypertrophy should consume 

0.8g of carbohydrates per kg of bodyweight. They should also consume 0.4g of protein per kg of bodyweight as well. So for example a NFL football player that weighs 220 should consume 80 grams of carbohydrates and 40 grams of protein. This should be consumed in liquid form immediately following their workout. A whole food meal consisting of complex carbohydrates along with protein and minimal fat should be consumed an hour or so afterward.

Ideally this athlete would consume the carbohydrates from a 50% mix of dextrose to 50% maltodextrin (or 40 grams of each), mixed with 40 grams of hydrolyzed whey protein in at least 16oz. of water. Also scooped out and placed in the shake should be 5-10g creatine along with 5-20 grams of l-glutamine.

As you can see the post workout timeframe is very vital to an athletes success. It is much more complex that one may think. Those who take advantage of it could benefit greatly. For years I have seen many athletes finish up a workout, walk to their car, and off to eat a burger and fries, or even worse nothing at all. The progress that is hindered by their lack of post workout knowledge is very great. Many athletes ignore post workout nutrition and in doing so put a damper on their performance in training and on the field. 

Any athlete who wants to be at the top of their game should pay very close attention to their post workout nutrition. It could be the difference in the star athlete and the average Joe…

It’s a college paper.

Graded mostly on what?


How big of a role, if any, does the structure play in the grading?

And when’s it due, out of curiosity.

Needs references. Learn to use footnotes. Otherwise the reader has no idea where you’re getting your information.

Here is my list of references:

Andrich, Vince. ?Sports Supplement Review?. Mile High Publishing. 2001.

Andrich, Vince. ?NO MISTAKES: Nutritional Guide to Building Your Best Body Ever.? 2002.

Antonio, Jose. ?Fast and Slow Dietary Proteins.? Strength and Conditioning Journal. Vol. 25, No. 6. 2003.

Barr, Dave. ?The Top 10 Post Workout Nutrition Myths.? T-Nation. 1998-2005.

Berardi, John. ?Solving The Post-Workout Puzzle; Part 1.? T-Nation.

Berardi, John. ?Solving The Post-Workout Puzzle; Part 2.? T-Nation.

Berardi, John. ?Precision Nutrition.? Science Link Inc. 2005.

Brand-Miller, Jennie, T. Wolever, S. Colagiuri, K. Foster-Powell. ?The Glucose Revolution.? Marlowe & Company. 1999.

Dente, Gerard. ?Macrobolic Nutrition.? Basic Health Publications. 2004.

Eckerson, Joan. ?Can Women Benefit From Creatine Supplementation?? NSCA National Personal Trainers Conference. 2006.

Grande, Bryan M. ?Creatine Supplementation: Forms, Function and Effects.? Strength and Conditioning Journal. Vol. 27, No 1. 2005.

Ivy, John and Robert Portman. ?The Performance Zone.? Basic Health Publications. 2004.

Knowlden, Adam. ?A Scientific Investigation into the Rationality of Post Workout Carbohydrate Consumption.? ABC Bodybuilding. 2000.

Marieb, Elaine. ?Human Anatomy and Physiology.? Pearson Education Inc. 2004.

Mullins, Veronica and L. Houtkooper. ?Nutrition and Recovery From Endurance Exercise.? National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal. Vol. 19, No. 5.

NSCA. ?Nutrition: Intestinal Absorption During Rest and Exercise.? National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal: Vol. 15, No. 5. 1993.

Venom. ?Active Recovery-A Three Fold Break Down? ABC Bodybuilding. 2000.

Venom. ?Dextrose & Maltodextrin: An In-Depth Analysis.? ABC Bodybuilding. 2000.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N. ?Postworkout Carbohydrate and Protein Supplementation.? Strength and Conditioning Journal. Vol. 23. No. 3. 2001.

[quote]Ghost22 wrote:
Graded mostly on what?


How big of a role, if any, does the structure play in the grading?

And when’s it due, out of curiosity.[/quote]

The topic was originally technologies impact on society. I asked him if I could do an overview of the importance of or lack of macronutrients on an athletes post workout time frame. He said thats fine and an overview will be great. He also said he is not as rigid as and english teacher on organization and ease to follow. Its due later this week.

How would you rate PVL Carbo Complex as a post workout carb source, when mixed with whey protein powder, creatine and water?

If you google it ( or PM me ) you’ll find a link.


100% pure, energy rich, naturally occurring glucose polymers.

|/ 3Toes