I developed anterior compartment syndrome (and tore my soleus on top of that, in the L leg) from overtraining (as a runner).
From my understanding there are a few ways to develop this condition:
a) Overuse/Overtraining of the muscle which results in fatigue and muscle development that restricts oxygen/nutrient flow into the fascia (muscle compartments)
-This is possible in both, runners (endurance athletes) and in resistance training, from my understanding..which stems from recreational research, more than anything.
b) A sudden blow to the muscle
c) Silly (read: incredibly stupid) individuals who decide that they can run marathons as a Saturday activity without ever having run, period.
I hope that maybe I've been able to scratch at what you were asking?
I had a really great team of athletic therapists/chiropractor who helped me overcome my 3rd case of compartment syndrome sans surgery.
I honestly had to endure a prescribed weekend of complete and total house arrest with NO WAKLING whatsoever to kick it all off.
Hang in there!