British FSA Saturated Fat Campaign

So I asked the folks at the FSA for their research and they were kind enough to give me the below list.

Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER 3rd, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop LM; OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 2005;294(19):2455-64.

British Nutrition Foundation. Cardiovascular disease: diet, nutrition and emerging risk factors. The report of the British Nutrition Foundation Task Force. 2005. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists? Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90 056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet 2005;366:1267-78.
Department of Health. 46 Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. Report on Health and Social Subjects. 1994. London: TSO.

Goldbourt V, Holtzman E, Neufeld HN. Total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and risk of mortality: evidence of a threshold effect. BMJ 1985;290:1239-43.
Hegsted DM, McGandy RB, Myers ML, Stare FJ. Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1965;17:281-95.

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson J et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1491-9.

Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC. Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. JACN 2001;20(1):5-19.

Hu FB and Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA 2002;288(20):2569-78.
Keogh JB, Grieger JA, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Flow-mediated dilatation is impaired by a high-saturated fat diet but not by a high-carbohydrate diet. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25(6):1274-9.

Keys A, Anderson JT, Grande F. Prediction of serum-cholesterol responses of man to changes in fats in the diet. Lancet 1957;273(7003):959-66.

Keys A, Anderson JT, Grande F. Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet. Metabolism 1965;14:747-87.
Kushi LH, Lew RA, Stare FJ, Ellison CR, el Lozy M, Bourke G, Daly L, Graham I, Hickey N, Mulcahy R, et al. Diet and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. The Ireland-Boston Diet-Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(13):811-8.
Law MR, Wald NJ, Thompson SG. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ 1994;308:367-72.

Martin MJ, Hulley SB, Browner WS, Kuller LH, Wentworth D. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and mortality: implications from a cohort of 361,662 men. Lancet 1986;2:933-6.

McGee DL, Reed DM, Yano K, Kagan A, Tillotson J. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease in the Honolulu Heart Program. Am J Epid. 1984;119(5):667-76.

Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77(5):1146-1155.

Oh K, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the Nurses? Health Study. Am J Epid. 2005;161:672-679.

Pocock SJ, Shaper AG, Phillips AN. Concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol in ischaemic heart disease. BMJ 1989;298:998-1002.

Rasmussen BM, Vessby B, Uusitupa M, Berglund L, Pedersen E, Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Tapsell L, Hermansen K for the KANWU Study Group. Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(2):221-26.
Reed D, Yano K, Kagan A. Lipids and lipoproteins as predictors of coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer in the Honolulu Heart Program. Am J Med. 1986;80(5):871-8.

Rose G and Shipley M. Plasma cholesterol concentration and death from coronary heart disease: 10-year results of the Whitehall study. BMJ 1986;293:306-7.

Sacks FM and Katan M. Randomised clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 2002;113 Suppl 9B:13S-24S.

Sanders T. Abstract: Impact of the amount and type of fat and carbohydrate on serum lipids in the RISCK study. Presented at the Nutrition Society Summer Meeting 2008.

Stanley JC, Elsom RL, Calder PC, et al. UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: the effects of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health. Br J Clin Nutr 2007:98;1305-10.

Truswell AS. Review of dietary intervention studies: effect on coronary events and on total mortality. Aust NZ J Med 1994;24:98-106.

World Health Organisation. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. 2003. Geneva: WHO.

The first article was done on people with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. It’s conclusion states substituting carbs for protein or “monounsaturated fat can further lower blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce estimated cardiovascular risk”.

So I’m not sure how this helps anyone come to a conclusion that one should reduce sturated fat.