Beef isn't "better" or "worse" in regards to body composition compared to other commonly eaten protein sources. The effect of a given food is largely determined by its macronutrient and micronutrient content and how it fits into an individual's diet (the context of its inclusion).
In general, beef is more energy-dense (larger amount of calories per weight and volume) than the other protein sources you listed because of its higher fat content. This makes beef usually a good choice for people who have both large caloric and protein requirements in their diet but can also be included in diets of people who don't. Any major nutritional differences can be seen simply by comparing any given cut of beef with any other protein sources on nutritiondata.com. You'll see that they have varying amounts of protein/fat for a given caloric or weighted amount of food and this is where the primary difference lies. Also, you'll notice different amounts of vitamins and minerals per serving of each.
Overall, the main advantage in my mind is that beef tastes better than fish, chicken, turkey, and eggs, at least in my opinion.