STAY AWAY FROM GLUCOSAMINE! Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001 Mar;280(3):E428-35 Related Articles, Links
Effects of cellular ATP depletion on glucose transport and insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Kang J, Heart E, Sung CK.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.
Glucosamine induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was associated with a 15% decrease in cellular ATP content. To study the role of ATP depletion in insulin resistance, we employed sodium azide (NaN3) and dinitrophenol (DNP), which affect mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, to achieve a similar 15% ATP depletion. Unlike glucosamine, NaN3 and DNP markedly increased basal glucose transport, and the increased basal glucose transport was associated with increased GLUT-1 content in the plasma membrane without changes in total GLUT-1 content. These agents, like glucosamine, did not affect the early insulin signaling that is implicated in insulin stimulation of glucose transport. In cells with a severe 40% ATP depletion, basal glucose transport was similarly elevated, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport was similar in cells with 15% ATP depletion. In these cells, however, early insulin signaling was severely diminished. These data suggest that cellular ATP depletion by glucosamine, NaN3, and DNP exerts differential effects on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport and that ATP depletion per se does not induce insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.